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He noted that the Algerian extremist groups, out of which AQIM grew, had networks of supporters in Algerian immigrant communities across Europe and North America during the 1990s and the early part of the past decade.

The Armed Islamic Group and its successor, the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, fought a bloody and bitter insurgency in Algeria through most of the 1990s.

It also launched terrorist operations in Europe, including a notorious bombing of the Paris subway.

Analysts say those European networks were largely rolled up after the Paris bombing and their successors — who were involved in fundraising, propaganda and recruitment for an Iraqi insurgency a decade later — were stopped in the mid-2000s.