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For all of Mr. Obama’s primary success and rock starlike attention, some Democratic lawmakers in politically conservative regions of the country have been reluctant to join the Obama bandwagon.

Rep. Dan Boren, the only congressional Democrat in Oklahoma, calls Mr. Obama “the most liberal senator” in Congress and says he has no plans to make a public endorsement.

Rep. Jim Marshall, Georgia Democrat and Vietnam veteran, said he admires both Mr. Obama and Mr. McCain but feels no obligation to state a preference.

The Democratic Party still risks the defection of many Clinton supporters upset over the party’s decision May 31 to award her only half of the delegates she claimed in the disputed Florida and Michigan primaries.

Some ardent Clinton backers who accused the party of failing to defend Mrs. Clinton against what they say was sexist and misogynistic treatment of her by the media and Republicans also have vowed not to support Mr. Obama.

Allida Black, a George Washington University professor and Clinton supporter, said she won’t vote for Mr. McCain but added “Obama has to earn me” before she’ll support him.

“I have simmering fury and a mixture of defiant joy,” said Ms. Black at the Emily’s List luncheon.

“I’m furious at the process, I’m furious that the Democratic leadership allowed Senator Clinton to be vilified in the media in a way that they never would’ve allowed Senator Obama to be chastised or mocked or ridiculed.”

But former Clinton backer Jerri Shaw of Columbia, Md., said supporting Mr. Obama is “the right thing to do.”

“I always knew I would work for the Democrat, no matter who,” said Ms. Shaw, who campaigned for Mrs. Clinton in seven states

. “Every person I know who worked for Clinton is heartbroken and taking some time to grief - and will be there working for Obama.”

Clinton supporter Cynthia Currin of Redwood City, Calif., who also attended the luncheon, said electing Mr. Obama to the White House is now her main political priority.

“As time wore on, what I really wanted was to see more unity in the party and not allow the Republican Party to tear us apart,” she said. “I think we’re at this point where we’re moving forward.”

*This article is based in part on wire service reports.