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In California and Florida, proponents of traditional marriage collected hundreds of thousands of signatures to get the amendments before voters; in Arizona, lawmakers put the measure on the ballot.

All three states had vigorous campaigns. In fact, the battle over California’s Proposition 8 attracted more than $73 million in campaign funding, making it one of the most expensive races in the country. All three amendments won, but the California race was the tightest with a 52 percent victory.