HITLER’S PANZERS: THE LIGHTNING ATTACKS THAT REVOLUTIONIZED WARFARE
By Dennis Showalter
Berkley Caliber, $25.95, 390 pages
Reviewed by John Weisman
From the days of Frederick the Great, Dennis Showalter writes in “Hitler’s Panzers,” Prussian military theorists realized Prussia “was unlikely to recover from an initial defeat” in battle.
The result, Mr. Showalter concludes, was that “the Germans incorporated a specific mentality emphasizing speed and daring: a war of movement. This involved maneuvering to strike as hard a blow as possible, from a direction as unexpected as possible.”
These days, we call such tactics “shock and awe.” During World War II, they were known as Blitzkrieg - lightning war. The concept involved speed, surprise and violence of action, the integration of close air support and an offense built around highly mobile armored forces striking audacious, devastating blows before the enemy can mount a coherent, cohesive defense.
Panzer warfare came, Mr. Showalter writes, as a result of the drawn-out, stalemate linear trench warfare of World War I. By 1921, a Prussian aristocrat, Gen. Hans von Seeckt, “moved the Germans from Sitz to Blitz” by developing the concept of “fighting outnumbered and winning.”
“The Reichswehr, Seeckt insisted, must dictate the conditions of battle by taking the initiative.” To Seeckt, that initiative revolved around the mobility that tanks had the potential to offer. Indeed, Mr. Showalter writes, “In 1924, Seeckt ordered each unit and garrison to designate an officer responsible for acting as an adviser on tank matters, conducting classes and courses on armored warfare.”
Among the young officers drawn to Seeckt’s theories was a motor-transport battalion lieutenant named Heinz Guderian. He thrived. “In 1927,” Mr. Showalter writes, “freshly promoted to major, he was assigned to the Truppenamt’s Operations Section … to study the development of motor transport for infantry.”
By 1931, Guderian was a lieutenant colonel, and he and his commanding officer, Oswald Lutz, were planning military exercises that employed tanks as “the key weapon on the battlefield.” By the mid-1930s, the “Lutz/Guderian school” as Mr. Showalter calls it, was integrating self-propelled gun mounts to provide fire support for panzer divisions.
Those panzer divisions’ “guiding principle was attack by fire and movement: platoons and individual tanks supporting each other, and in turn supported by motorized infantry, artillery, and engineers - an integrated combat team. … A defeated enemy was to be pursued relentlessly, with every effort made to cut off his retreat and finish him on the spot.”
By 1937, Guderian had written a popular book called “Achtung - Panzer!” that, according to Mr. Showalter, popularized his concept that panzers must be at the “the operational Schwerpunkt - the vital spot” - at the opening of any campaign. Also by 1937, Germany’s air force, the Luftwaffe, was providing close air support to panzer divisions during field exercises.
By the time Adolf Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia, this integration of force came to be known as Blitzkrieg. (In a fascinating aside, Mr. Showalter explains, “Far from being a German concept, blitzkrieg was in fact a term coined in the West, first used in Time magazine and introduced to the German army secondhand. Hitler himself as late as 1942 dismissed it as ‘Italian phraseology.’ ”
In the war’s early campaigns - Poland, France and the Low Countries and the initial invasion of the Soviet Union - the panzer concept, a “combination of tanks, motorized troops, and aircraft could not only break into and break through an enemy front; they could break out, with decisive effect.”