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The previous meeting between Iran and the five permanent Security Council members plus Germany in October ended inconclusively on an enrichment freeze but led to agreement to start the fuel-swap negotiations. That, in turn, foundered after Tehran balked at shipping out most of its low-enriched uranium in exchange for fuel rods for the research reactor.

While Iran says it is now ready for a swap, its interlocutors say the terms must be renegotiated because Tehran has since enriched much more uranium, meaning that it would still have enough to enrich to weapons grade even if it now shipped out the original amount agreed upon.

Additionally, Iran now is enriching to higher levels, which can be turned into weapons grade uranium more easily — material it says it needs to turn into fuel rods after the deal stalled last year. The West demands the process be stopped before any consideration of new fuel swap talks.

In what the West sees as a further complication, Iran has enlisted Turkey and Brazil in pressing for a return to the fuel-swap talks essentially under the original terms now rejected by its interlocutors. Russia has welcomed Iranian calls to invite Brazil and Turkey to the negotiations, while the United States and France are skeptical.

“The Iranians say they want to meet without preconditions, then they lay out a bunch of preconditions,” said a Western official from a European capital who is familiar with the issue. The official, who asked for anonymity because his information is confidential, said there is a “long way to go before we know who will be at the table, and when.”

A diplomat from an IAEA member nation familar with the talks said Brazil and Turkey may not be keen to join any negotiations and risk sharing the blame should they fail. He too asked for anonymity because his information was confidental.