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“These embarrassing photo-ops occur because the military is not well-schooled on the jihadist threat in America, and because fundamentally the national security establishment does not have a fully elaborated threat model for the global and domestic jihad,” Mr. Poole said. “In many instances, relationships and events with terror-tied Islamic groups and leaders are organized by public affairs flacks and never vetted by counterintelligence agencies.”

Mr. Poole said an example was a lecture on Islam that was given to U.S. troops at Fort Hood by Louay Safi as the troops were preparing to deploy to Afghanistan. Mr. Poole said Mr. Safi had been captured on FBI communications intercepts talking to a senior Palestinian Islamic Jihad leader in the U.S. Additionally, Mr. Safi’s office had been raided by the FBI in 2002 as part of a terrorism finance probe.

“Amazingly, a Fort Hood spokesman later claimed that Safi had been fully vetted,” Mr. Poole said. “If thats true, who was doing the vetting and what standards were they using?”

Ms. Wonder, a third speaker at the conference, also presented several case studies showing indicators and warnings of mosques in the U.S. that were taken over by Islamic radicals, many linked to the Muslim Brotherhood. The mosques are being used as “hubs” and support systems for active terrorist cells, she told the conference.

Col. Myers said his presentation in 2008 represents a failure to strategically understand the full nature of the threat facing the United States in the war on terrorism. “Unfortunately, such strategic failings at senior leader levels cannot help but result in tactical failings, such as the Fort Hood terrorist attack,” he said. “It demonstrates that we don’t get it.”

Mr. Poole noted the case of Army Sgt. Hasan Karim Akbar, who killed two fellow soldiers in Kuwait in 2003. Akbar was sentenced to death for the killing.

“Our conclusion was that ignorance and inaction keeps our troops vulnerable,” Mr. Poole said. “But our warnings were ignored and no policies were changed. And in 2009, 13 soldiers and one civilian employee paid with their lives.”

Col. Myers said the Army’s recent report on the Fort Hood shooting, like much of current military doctrine, focused on capabilities and deficiencies, process and procedures but failed to address the threat.

“We continue to act and talk as though we don’t understand it and that there is a level of ‘uncertainty’ — a word overused today in military parlance — as to who our enemy is and at this point, that can no longer be tolerated,” he said.

“All federal and commissioned officers take an oath to defend the Constitution against all enemies foreign and domestic, and that mandates a duty to be clear on who the enemies of our Constitution are, and a failure to know is a failure of duty.”