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Mrs. Schaffer said many Pakistanis see U.S. involvement in Afghanistan as a cause of their domestic troubles. “This explains the low popularity of the U.S. and its leaders. Add to that the widespread view that the U.S. war on terror, as the Bush administration called it, is anti-Muslim,” she said.

The survey found most Pakistanis oppose U.S.-led efforts to fight terrorism and want coalition troops to leave Afghanistan as soon as possible.

It also reveals some starkly contrasting opinions.

While about 60 percent of Pakistanis polled see the U.S. as an enemy and worry that it could become a military threat to their country, most say it is important for relations between the U.S. and their country to improve.

Similarly, while most Pakistanis support modernizers versus Islamic fundamentalists, 82 percent of Muslims polled said they favor the stoning adulterers, 82 percent support whipping and cutting off hands for crimes such as theft and robbery, 76 percent favor the death penalty for people who convert from Islam, and 85 percent favor segregating men and women in the workplace.

And while terrorism is still seen as a big threat, fewer Pakistanis worry that terrorists will take over their country, compared to last year when the military was fighting the Taliban within 100 miles of the capital Islamabad.

One of the most important findings of the survey was that relatively few Pakistanis believe a Taliban takeover of Afghanistan would represent a problem for Pakistan, according to Mr. Kohut.

“Pakistanis are more worried about the external threat of India than they are worried about the internal threat of extremist groups,” he said.

The poll also found high disapproval ratings (93 percent) for a U.S. policy of using unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, to target militant suspects. Yet many said the death of Pakistani Taliban leader Baitullah Mehsud, who was killed in a drone strike, was a good thing.

Pakistanis also have a grim view of the state of their country. Only 14 percent are satisfied with national conditions, while 84 percent say they are dissatisfied.

Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari’s approval ratings are down from 32 percent in 2009 to 20 percent this year.

In comparison, the Army chief, Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kiyani, who recently received a three-year extension, a rare occurrence for an army chief, has a 61 percent approval rating.

“Some analysts of South Asia have pointed out that no Army chief has ever extended his term, in a way that Gen. Kiyani just did, without subsequently taking power … he has the poll ratings that might lead him to interpret things that way,” said Steve Coll, president of the New America Foundation.