Continued from page 1

Helen Glover, who hosts a talk show on WHJJ-AM in Providence, R.I., acknowledged that people often connect the image of talk radio with “the old retired white guy sitting in his house with the AM radio.”

“That is not true,” she said, adding that she is encouraged by the growing number of women listening to conservative talk radio as well as union members who have no other say in the political activities of their labor leaders.

“Talk radio gives them that outlet,” said Ms. Glover. “Now they won’t call my show, but they’ll email me and tell me they’re listening.”