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In addition, the FBI blocked Uzi Arad, the current Israeli national security adviser, from entering the country between 2007 and 2009 on grounds that he met with Franklin in 2002.

No friends in intelligence

Among the crimes the affidavit says there was probable cause to suspect Mr. Rosen had committed was a failure to register with the attorney general as an agent of a foreign power.

The scrutiny of AIPAC corresponds with overall scrutiny of Israel’s intelligence-gathering in the United States.

Israeli officials have said publicly they do not target the United States in intelligence activities. Ilan Mizrahi, a former deputy chief of Israel’s Mossad intelligence agency, said recently that Israel did not spy on the United States. “This is a taboo. It was a taboo always, not only against the United States, but also in other friendly countries,” he said.

Current and former U.S. counterintelligence officials say the Israelis are considered a cyberthreat to U.S. government networks, along with allies like France and India and adversaries like China, in that Israeli hackers have probed U.S. networks for vulnerabilities and means to monitor sensitive traffic.

Israel, India and France have substantial cyber-intelligence-gathering capabilities,” said Stewart Baker, a former general counsel for the National Security Agency and Department of Homeland Security. “Because you have no friends in the intelligence world, you have to judge countries in part by their capabilities, not by whether you are getting along today.”

Also, Israeli technology firms have long been suspected of trying to steal trade secrets from U.S. companies, something suspected of European companies as well. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Pentagon locked horns with Israel over the retransfer of defense technology to China.

“Israeli companies have been aggressive in attempting to obtain technology transfer. There have been a number of cases of industrial espionage involving Israeli companies,” said Oliver “Buck” Revell, a former associate director of the FBI who oversaw counterintelligence investigations at the bureau.

Another factor that has led counterintelligence officials to suspect Israeli intelligence-gathering is the case of Jonathan Pollard, who sold U.S. secrets to the Israelis while he served as a Navy intelligence analyst 25 years ago. He is serving a life sentence in a federal prison in North Carolina.

This month, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu made a public plea for Pollard’s release before the Knesset, Israel’s parliament. U.S. Jewish organizations on the same day signed a letter, along with other religious leaders, asking that Pollard, 56, be released.

Abe Foxman, national director of the Anti-Defamation League, said the scrutiny of Mr. Rosen reflects the belief among some in the intelligence community that Pollard must have worked with someone else, because much of the intelligence he stole was not related to his areas of expertise.

“I believe this goes back to this notion that there was a second Pollard and it was bigger than Pollard,” Mr. Foxman said. “I am not sure that to this day they have given up this fantasy notion. I would rather they pursue this, come up with nothing, rather than not be given the opportunity to pursue it and saying, ‘if only they let us, we would find something.’”

Mr. Revell said the U.S. government had a “rather vigorous discussion with the Israelis” after the Pollard arrest. He added that he considers the Pollard affair to be a “one-off” event and not part of a pattern of Israelis recruiting Americans. He also said there were no ties that turned up connecting Pollard to pro-Israel groups such as AIPAC.

“We do not consider the Israelis a national security threat to the United States,” Mr. Revell said. “What we do want to do is to make sure that some individual entities or individuals do not become overzealous, that in their desire to help Israel do not cross the line and take actions that are detrimental to U.S. security or intelligence.”

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