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So far, no CIA officer has been formally punished for the death of Rahman, who died of hypothermia. But federal prosecutors are re-examining his death, along with a small number of other cases involving CIA detainee abuses.

In March, the FBI rejected a Freedom of Information Act request the AP submitted for autopsy records in Rahman’s death, saying it was relevant to “a pending or prospective law enforcement proceeding.”

The AP appealed, but the Justice Department upheld the decision in November because releasing the information “could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings.” The Justice Department added that disclosing the autopsy report could cause “foreseeable harm” to the ongoing investigation.

Dr. Baheer said Rahman, in his early 30s, went by the nom de guerre Abdul Menan when he served as one of Mr. Hekmatyar’s elite guards. But when he was picked up in 2002, he had left Mr. Hekmatyar’s service and returned to his family at Shamshatoo refugee camp, near Peshawar, Mr. Baheer said.

At the Salt Pit, the code name for an abandoned brick factory that became a forerunner of a network of secret CIA-run prisons, Mr. Baheer said, his own interrogation often consisted of being tied to a chair while his American interrogators, wearing masks, would sit on his stomach. For hours he would be left hanging, naked and shivering.

“They were very cruel.”

Adam Goldman reported from Washington.