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“Tourists won’t come to this area because they’re intimidated,” said Dan Hartley, a 22-year-old London resident who stopped to observe the demonstrators with a couple of friends. “All these shops are losing money. I don’t understand it.”

For their part, demonstrators say such worries are unfounded and the opposite is true.

“It’s bringing people in, if anything,” said Nick Fischer, a 20-year-old fast-food worker who made the trek from Liverpool with a friend to take part in the protest.

As an example, Mr. Fischer pointed to a nearby Starbucks - where many protesters hang out or use the restroom - that was packed.

Mr. Fischer and friend Chris Huxley, also 20, said they weren’t afraid of being removed from St. Paul’s by force if church leaders ask the authorities for help.

“There’s always going to be a risk,” Mr. Fischer said. But he added that police in London and elsewhere in the UK learned from this summer’s riots not to “instigate.”

Police are a regular presence at St. Paul‘s, though they keep a low profile. On Sunday, several officers strolled through the maze of tents, with some drinking coffee as others took a moment to read from a vast array of posters and manifestos plastered throughout the area.

“They’re the 99 percent too,” Mr. Fischer said, employing a catchphrase of the movement.