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In 1999, Gov. James S. Gilmore III got into a dispute with New York Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani, who said the Southern state should be happy to accept trash from the Big Apple’s landfills in a “reciprocal relationship” for the cultural benefits his city provided.

A few months later, Mr. Gilmore retaliated, signing a law capping dumping at the state’s largest landfills.

But federal courts had the last word, overturning parts of the law for violating the Constitution.