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Sen. Charles J. Colgan, Prince William Democrat, had signed the conference report, leading Republicans to speculate that he might be the crucial swing vote to break ranks with Democrats.

At the end of the day, Mr. Colgan voted with his party.

Mr. Norment was tight-lipped about who he had expected the other crossover Democrat to be.

The spending plan for the next two years failed on a 20-19 vote, as did the “caboose bill” that revises the budget for the year ending June 30.

The two-year spending plan is technically still alive, but the caboose bill is dead. Since much of the two-year budget is contingent on what happens the rest of the fiscal year, though, the legislature is now left between a rock and a hard place.

During the regular General Assembly session that ended March 10, Senate Democrats twice hung together to reject two spending plans. On Monday, Mr. McDonnell sent a letter to Mr. Saslaw and other legislative leaders warning of the dire consequences of another failed budget vote.

“If there is no budget passed on Tuesday, there will be prompt adverse consequences on local governments and schools, as well as VDOT and other state agencies postponing contracts due to the uncertainty of funding,” he wrote.

The state Department of Transportation on Friday said that without a budget it would have to start shutting down projects across the state.

The conference report included a net increase of $652.9 million for public education, including $110 million for a flexible block grant that localities can use to address teacher retirement, inflation and pre-K program costs. It also restores $40 million out of $65 million Mr. McDonnell had proposed cutting to offset the higher cost of living of Northern Virginia teaching personnel.

The budget also contained $44.7 million over the introduced budget for health and human resources, including an additional 305 waiver slots for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities to move them from institutions to community-based settings.

It also authorized a 3 percent bonus for state employees and faculty this December contingent on unspent balances and excess revenues in the current year. The bonus is estimated to cost about $77 million of general funds.

The Republican-led House of Delegates overwhelmingly passed both the caboose bill and the $85 billion spending plan.