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The unemployment rate for 18- to 29-year-olds overall in July was 12.7 percent; it was 22.3 percent for blacks in the same age range. Mr. Conway said if the 1.7 million young adults who have given up looking for jobs are included, the actual unemployment rate for voters younger than 30 is 16.7 percent.

• Researcher John Sopko contributed to this report.