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“This is the first time I join a protest. My children protested in Tahrir, but I never did but Morsi provoked me. I had to protest,” said Ayda Hasaneen, 50, marching toward the presidential palace. “I hope there will be a fair constitution, not for me, but for my children.

“My son fought Mubarak’s regime, my other son fought Morsi’s rule outside the palace on that bloody Wednesday. I’m here today for them.”

•  Ruby Russell reported from London. Marwa Nasser and Sarah Lynch, both in Cairo, and Josie Le Blond in Berlin contributed to this article, which is based in part on wire service reports.