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The new government will need to deliver results quickly ahead of upper house elections in the summer. To revive Japan’s struggling economy, Mr. Abe will likely push for increased public works spending and lobby for stronger moves by the central bank to break Japan out of its deflationary trap.

Still, some voters said they supported the Liberal Democratic Party’s vows to build a stronger, more assertive country to answer increasing pressure from China and threats of North Korean rocket launches.

Mr. Abe repeatedly has said he will protect Japan’s “territory and beautiful seas” amid a territorial dispute with China over some uninhabited islands in the East China Sea.