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Poverty swelled at the country’s fastest rate in Luxor province, highly dependent on visitors to its monumental temples and the tombs of King Tutankamun and other pharaohs. In 2011, 39 percent of its population lived on less than $1 a day, compared to 18 percent in 2009, according to government figures.

For the government, the fall in tourism and foreign investment since the revolution has worsened a debt crisis and forced talks with the International Monetary Fund over a $4.8 billion loan.

Mr. Morsi has promised to expand tourism, but hotel owners and tour operators say he has yet to make clear any plans.

Their biggest fear is new violence causing shocks like December’s. Mr. Ibrahim, of the Eagle Travels tourism company, said that because of this month’s protests, two German operators he works with cancelled tours. They weren’t even heading to Cairo, but to the Red Sea, Luxor and Aswan, far from the unrest.

But some in the industry fear that with the constitution’s provisions strengthening implementation of Shariah, Islamists will ban alcohol or restrict dress on Egypt’s beaches, which rival antiquities sites as draws for tourism. Officials from the Muslim Brotherhood, from which Mr. Morsi hails, are vague about any plans.

Ultraconservative Salafis, who are key allies of Mr. Morsi, have been more direct.

Nader Bakkar, spokesman for the Salafi Nour Party, told a conference of tour guides in Aswan earlier this month that tourists should not be allowed to buy alcohol but could bring it with them and drink it in their rooms. Tourists should also be encouraged to wear conservative dress, he said.

“We welcome all tourists, but we tell them … there are traditions and beliefs in the country, so respect them,” he said. “Most tourists will have no problem if you tell them” to bring their own alcohol.

One Salafi sheik earlier this year said the Pyramids and Sphinx should be demolished as anti-Islamic — like Afghanistan’s then-Taliban rulers destroyed monumental Buddha statues in 2001. Mr. Bakkar dismissed the comments as the opinion of one cleric.

But tour guide Gladys Haddad sees the Salafis’ attitude as a threat, saying the constitution should have said more to protect Egypt’s pharaonic heritage.

“We are talking about a civilization that they do not acknowledge. They see it as idolatrous,” she said.

“Why would a tourist come to a resort if he can’t drink?” said Ms. Fawzi, of Sabena Management. “People are coming for tours and monuments, and to relax on the boats. If they feel that restriction, why should they come?”

Nahla Mofied of Escapade Travels said the Islamists might restrict what tourists can “wear and do,” but given its importance to the economy, “they may not destroy tourism fully.”

Complicating attempts to draw tourists back is the lawlessness gripping Egypt the past two years. With police supervision low, tourist touts increasingly assault guides and even tourists to demand business. In September, 150 tour guides held a protest against attacks by vendors.

“We have struggled with this problem since before the revolution, but now the situation is completely out of control,” Mr. Ibrahim said.

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