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“But it’s no longer true,” he said, given Mr. Morsi’s purge in August of generals from the previous regime of Hosni Mubarak. “It remains to be seen whether Egypt's military is in the pocket of the Muslim Brotherhood or if it will be a political constraint on the Brotherhood’s effort to expand its power.”

Mr. Phillips said any move away from the Camp David Accords automatically would result in an end to aid, which has averaged about $2 billion in military and economic programs over the past 33 years.

Foreign Military Sales

Could U.S.-produced F-16s, manned by Egyptian pilots, one day attack Israel?

“I think that is a valid concern, given the ideological goals of the Muslim Brotherhood,” Mr. Phillips said. “In the long run, this military relationship is fraught with risks. It probably will be radically overhauled in the coming months” by the administration or Congress.

Mr. Springborg said the administration is sure to push Mr. Morsi to begin diversifying his procurements from heavy weapons toward tactical systems, such as helicopters and patrol boats, to guard his country’s borders.

“There are a whole host of security challenges that the military is not designed to meet, and we’ve been urging them to tie their procurement policy to the more diverse security threats they really face,” he said. “And they’ve rebuffed us for years. But the pressure is going to be much greater now to do that.”

On future sales, he added: “I think we need some demonstration of what their intent is going to be with regard to how they plan to run the country and its foreign affairs.”

Egypt is the second-largest recipient of U.S. military aid; Israel is first.

Most of Egypt’s assistance is in the form of weapons, such as tanks and fighters, bought with U.S. tax dollars through a program called Foreign Military Sales.

According to the Congressional Research Service, Egypt has ordered $14 billion in equipment since 2003.