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“We are not ready for war. The only way forward is peace,” Mr. Abbas told Arab leaders at a gathering in Qatar on Sunday.

Majed Swailim, a Palestinian political scientist, said Palestinian disappointment in failed peace efforts could lead to anti-Israel street protests in the West Bank in the coming months. But he did not expect an open armed rebellion.

“People here don’t want to repeat the violent intifada because they know that Israel can paralyze life in the entire West Bank,” he said.

Ibrahim Barzak in Gaza City, Gaza Strip; Mohammed Daraghmeh in Ramallah, West Bank; and Lauren E. Bohn in Tel Aviv contributed to this article.