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Heavy security was deployed around the country, especially outside state institutions, in anticipation of possible violence. Workers were sent home early from jobs, jewelry stores closed for fear of looting, and many people were stocking up on food and forming long lines at cash machines in case new troubles began.

Brotherhood members and experts said the results would be used as a bargaining chip between the generals and the Brotherhood over the parameters of what appears to be a new power-sharing agreement.

The country’s new constitution is not written, and the authorities of the president are not clear.

The country is deeply divided between supporters of the Brotherhood, liberals and leftists who also decided to back them as a way to stand up to the military, and other secular forces who fear the domination of the Brotherhood. The small margin of victory for Mr. Morsi also sets him for a strong opposition from supporters of Mr. Shafiq, viewed as a representative of the old regime.

Khaled Abdel-Hamid, a leading leftist politician, said Mr. Morsi must fight to get his powers back or he will lose any popular support he may have garnered.

“If he fights to get his power back, we will support him. But if does fight back, then he is settling for siding with the military,” he said.

Protesters in Tahrir have said they will not leave the square, in which they have been holding a sit-in for nearly a week, until Mr. Morsi can restore his rightful powers.