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Mr. Obama tried to end the program when he took office, eventually reaching a compromise that let students already in the program continue, but ending new applications.

When Republicans took control of the House last year, Speaker John A. Boehner fought to restart the program, and included funding in the first yearlong spending bill Mr. Obama signed.

But the program remains on edge, and Mr. Obama’s 2013 budget, submitted in January, doesn’t include any money for it. His administration argues that it has enough money to cover students for the next year.

Mr. Boehner, Ohio Republican, and Sen. Joe Lieberman, Connecticut independent, questioned Mr. Obama’s decision, and Mr. Boehner has vowed to insist the program be funded.