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Hunger stalking children in Senegal
Serious food shortage caused by drought ‘difficult but there is nothing we can do’
GOUDOUDE DIOBE, Senegal — It's 10 a.m., and the 2-year-old is still waiting for breakfast. Aliou Seyni Diallo collapses to his knees in tears and plops his forehead down on the dirt outside his family's hut.
Soon he is wailing inconsolably and writhing on his back in the sand. A neighbor spots him, picks him up easily by one arm, and gives him a little uncooked millet in a metal bowl. The toddler shovels it into his mouth with sticky fingers coated in tears and grime. The crying stops, for the moment.
Each day is a struggle for the women of this parched village in north Senegal to keep hungry children at bay, as they search desperately for food. Aliou's mother can recall only one time in her life when it was worse — and that was more than 20 years ago.
"I start a fire, put a pot of water on it and tell the children I am in the middle of preparing something," Maryam Sy, 37 and a mother of nine, says in a raspy voice. "In reality, I have nothing."
Here are the two most alarming things about Aliou's story:
He lives in the richest country in the Sahel, a belt across Africa from the Atlantic to the Red Sea south of the Sahara desert.
And the worst is yet to come.
More than 1 million children younger than 5 in this wide, arid swath of Africa are at risk because of a food shortage so severe that it threatens their lives, UNICEF estimates.
In Senegal, which is relatively stable and prosperous, malnutrition among children in the north has surpassed 14 percent, just shy of the World Health Organization threshold for an emergency.
Hunger in this region is a lurking predator that never quite leaves, and it comes back every year to pick off the weakest. Even in a noncrisis year, some 300,000 children die from lack of food across West and Central Africa. All it takes is a drought and a failed harvest, and those who are barely living on one meal a day will starve.
Since late 2011, aid groups have been sounding the alarm about how drought is once again devastating communities where children live perilously close to the edge. But not enough donations have come in.
The situation is worst in Niger, Chad and Mali, where political chaos has forced hundreds of thousands to seek refuge in places where people don't have enough to eat themselves.
But in a worrisome sign, this time the crisis also threatens 20,000 children in northern Senegal — little rag dolls with just enough energy to bury their faces in their mothers' dresses.
Hot, dry, dusty
"If you don't get certain nutrients, your brain is damaged and you can never recover," said Martin Dawes, West Africa spokesman for the U.N. children's agency. "You are then obviously far more vulnerable to a reduction in your food bowl turning into acute and severe malnutrition."
Already the signs of damage are there.
Aliou's 3-year-old sister Fatimata and 8-year-old sister Kadja have orangish hair growing in at the roots — a telltale sign of the protein deficiency that comes from eating just one bowl of porridge a day. The girls are neatly dressed, but their clavicles poke through their tops like hangers.
Haby, their 4-year-old sister, has streaks of orangish-blonde hair that frame her face, almost as blond as the Cinderella cartoon character printed on her dusty T-shirt. Her mother worriedly smooths down the wisps around her braids. She does not know the culprit is lack of protein; she wonders if it's something in the water.
The U.N. World Food Program serves lunch at school, but the Diallo sisters don't go. Their parents can't afford the school supplies.
It's noon in Goudoude Diobe, where women traditionally spend hours stewing the midday meal. But there is no smell of cooking vegetables or spices, no clanging of multiple pots — only the sound of roosters crowing and children crying.
Down a dusty trail, Samba Bayla's sister-in-law is starting to cook the only meal of the day for a family of 10, usually eaten at about 2 p.m. She displays a small bowl of uncooked millet and another bowl with just a few small dried fish that altogether would fit inside a pair of clasped hands.
The knobby-kneed children crowd inside a building where the water is boiling, despite the scalding heat and heavy smoke. The midday temperatures here soar to 109, and it's been a month since the restless children last ate meat, at a neighbor's wedding.
"The situation is difficult but there is nothing we can do," Mr. Bayla says. "We tell them just a few hours more."
It's not supposed to be this way in Senegal, a country of more than 12 million people where sushi bars dot the seaside capital. Still, most Senegalese live in rural areas, their lives and livelihoods beholden to the right recipe of rain.
Not enough of anything
Here in the northeast region of Matam, the drought couldn't have come at a worse time.
The country already is battling high food prices. And because of the global economic downturn, fewer Senegalese in this region have family members working abroad and sending money back home.
When the rains came late this year, they were sporadic at best. Crops failed, and the extra food stored for emergencies has been eaten. The next planting season is still months away.
Mr. Bayla grew millet and sorghum, while his wife sometimes made $2 selling incense. But grain production was down 36 percent over last year across Senegal. And those who want to buy millet after their own crops failed are paying 27 percent more compared to 2011.
"You are faced basically with households that have less of a harvest compared to what they usually have, and they are facing higher prices on the market," said Ingeborg Maria Breuer, Senegal's representative and country director for the U.N. World Food Program.
On the dusty sand roads that lead to remote villages, goats stand on their hind legs to eat the only vegetation in sight — thorny acacia trees.
The lucky villagers have relatives working in the capital of Dakar or in Europe. But even work there is harder to find; a job may only last a few months, so the amount trickling back to these rural communities has decreased considerably.
In better times, there was a vegetable garden in Goudoude Diobe, with cabbage and eggplants for a community of nearly 1,300 people. Families grew enough millet, sorghum and corn to feed the village and its 250 children.
Now most here, even the breast-feeding mothers, eat only a bowl of rice once a day. If they are lucky, it is cooked with oil.
What should have been dinnertime already has passed, and now Kadja Dembel Ba calculates that she needs to keep her children busy for at least two more hours.
Today she was lucky. She walked several hours to lug some rice back from the nearby town to her village, Fass, for her seven children.
But as she looks at her 3-year-old son Yaya Feyni, she knows it's not enough.
While other boys play outside, he lies on a bed behind his mother, listless and pale. Yaya has always been small compared to his brothers, she says, and now he is sick and won't eat anything.
She tends to him while her 1-year-old son squirms in her lap and her 5- and 7-year-olds hover nearby.
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