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Her bid for re-election also brought the rest of the top House Democratic leadership into focus, and the caucus likely will keep the same leaders it had after it suffered historic losses in 2010.

Rep. Steny H. Hoyer of Maryland said he would run to be the minority whip, and Rep. James E. Clyburn of South Carolina said he would run to be assistant leader — a position created for him after the 2010 elections.

Mrs. Pelosi’s hold on power despite losing the majority two years ago is not unprecedented.

Former Reps. Joseph W. Martin Jr., Massachusetts Republican, and Sam Rayburn, Texas Democrat, each flipped between speaker and minority leader several times during the mid-20th century. And James Beauchamp Clark, Missouri Democrat, was speaker for several years before his party lost control of the House in 1919, when he was elected minority leader for one term.