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Some of the group’s supporters, known as Anons, also were distributing so-called “digital care packages” in English, Arabic and Hebrew, she said.

The “care packages” are a set of electronic documents containing instructions for avoiding Internet surveillance and connecting to the Web if the authorities try to cut off access, as the Egyptian and Tunisian governments did last year in the face of popular uprisings.

Other observers suggested that the scale and targets of #OpIsrael showed the diminished state of Anonymous, after the arrests of more than a dozen hackers associated with the group and with a splinter group called LulzSec.

“As the days go by, we’re seeing a weak, confused Anon, not a group of Internet freedom fighters,” wrote Sam Biddle, an editor at the news website Gizmodo, calling its latest campaign “embarrassing.”

He added that most of the websites that the group claimed in Internet postings to have successfully knocked down or defaced appear to belong to small businesses, many with no discernible connection to the Israeli military. A brief survey of the lists released by Anonymous revealed none in the government domain,

Security specialists say it is no accident that the Web servers of Israeli government departments and large commercial enterprises have proved hard to take off line.

“From my foxhole,” said a former U.S. military cyberwarrior, who asked for anonymity because of the sensitivities of his current employer, “Israel has known for at least a decade that they could be attacked.”

He noted that the country had hardened its Internet infrastructure in both the public and private sector.

“They have spent a lot of money, invested in training their people, especially at the advanced technical level like Ph.D.s,” said the former cyberwarrior, who still works in cybersecurity.

The information-sharing between government agencies and the private sector in is Israel is “better than any other country in the world,” he added.

“The war is taking place on three fronts,” said Carmela Avner, Israel’s chief information officer. “The first is physical. The second is on the world of social networks, and the third is cyber.”