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Meanwhile, Israeli leaders were “falling all over themselves” to congratulate Mr. Obama on his victory, said David Hartwell, IHS Jane’s senior Middle East analyst in London.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who faces elections in January and has clashed often with Mr. Obama on issues such as Iran’s nuclear threat, promised that he would “continue to work with President Obama to ensure the interests that are vital for the security of Israel’s citizens.”

At the Vatican, Pope Benedict XVI congratulated Mr. Obama on his re-election, even though American Catholic bishops opposed his abortion policies.

Chinese President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao jointly congratulated Obama on his re-election, noting “positive progress” in Sino-U.S. relations over the past four years, said the Chinese Foreign Ministry. Mr. Romney had vowed to take action against China as a “currency manipulator,” and many there feared he would start a trade war.

Meanwhile, Russia gave a lukewarm welcome to Mr. Obama’s re-election.

“In general, the Kremlin reacted extremely positively to Barack Obama’s election victory” and expressed hope that bilateral relations would “develop,” said Dmitry Peskov, a spokesman for President Vladimir Putin.

Marc Bennetts in Moscow, Mohannad Sabry in Cairo and Louise Osborne in London contributed to this article.