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“These posters are adding a new dispute in Iraq’s politics and they might lead to a negative impact,” Mr. al-Dabbagh said. “The local governments should deal with such situations.”

Sunnis were less diplomatic in their assessment.

Hamid al-Mutlaq, a leading lawmaker, blasted the poster campaign, which he said shows Iran’s efforts to amass power in Iraq.

Raad Abdul-Rahman, a government worker, said the posters prove that Iraq is becoming “a total Iranian stooge.”

“In the past, we used to encounter the pictures of the Arab dictator Saddam,” Mr. Abdul-Rahman said, referring to the posters and statues of the former president that used to be ubiquitous across Baghdad and the rest of the country. “But now pictures of the Persian dictator are taking over.”