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Denver has been the recent epicenter of presidential advertising, with 9,950 ads from Oct. 1-21, outpacing second-place Las Vegas with 8,057 ads. Tampa, Fla., Cleveland and Orlando, Fla., round out the top five.

The study also showed a drop in presidential advertising through large swaths of the country this year compared with the 2008 presidential election year, most notably in Missouri, Indiana, Montana and North Dakota. Ad volumes in Michigan and Minnesota also have declined some, while advertising has increased in battleground states such as Nevada, Colorado, Ohio and Virginia.