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Punting the problem

But all the fretting by businesses may be for naught if, as many analysts expect, the deadline is punted into next year or is otherwise softened by a budget agreement that phases in austerity measures over a period of years. The latter is the scenario that economists say would produce the most favorable result for the economy and the budget deficit.

“The most likely scenario is that policymakers will come together after the elections and pass a continuation of existing tax policy and spending levels. This continuing resolution would essentially result in Congress and the administration kicking the can down the road until sometime early next year,” said John Silvia, chief economist at Wells Fargo Securities and a former congressional staffer who is familiar with Capitol Hill’s procrastinating ways.

While putting off the deadline would prolong the uncertainty and anxiety for a while longer, it would not do the kind of major damage to the economy that has been trumpeted in headlines this year, striking fear in the hearts of some businessmen, he said.

“It would place a drag on economic growth and weigh on financial markets” as businesses and investors await a longer-term solution from Congress, Mr. Silvia said. But it would avoid the recession that would occur if all the spending cuts and tax increases were allowed to take effect immediately.

Other Washington observers and prognosticators have reached the same conclusion: Congress will march right up to the fiscal deadline in a game of partisan chicken, but avert disaster at the last minute with at least a temporary delay or possibly a more far-reaching solution to the fiscal crisis. In the meantime, the economy will suffer as businesses and investors wait anxiously for a resolution.

It wouldn’t be the first time that widespread dread in anticipation of a much-publicized event proved to have a more powerful effect on the economy than the event itself.

An economic catastrophe from the so-called Y2K computer bug in the months running up to the year 2000 was widely predicted but turned out to be a total dud. The down-to-the-wire fight in August 2011 over raising the federal debt ceiling also fizzled, but both had powerful effects on the economy before the deadline.

Pressure on the Hill

Setting up such pressure-ridden deadlines has become a hallowed tradition in Congress since the 1980s, when a series of do-or-die deadlines was enacted as part the era’s Gramm-Rudman budget regime. As in the earlier era, the tactic has had middling success in forcing agreements between the parties, even if the periodic deadlines are unsettling to the markets, the economy and the public at large.

Despite all the bombast and rhetoric surrounding the fiscal deadline, business professionals familiar with the ways of Washington are well aware that the much-vaunted catastrophe is likely to be averted. An informal survey of clients by Morgan Stanley recently found that 60 percent expect Congress to “kick the can down the road,” with only 7 percent expecting Congress to drive the economy off the cliff.

Business clients, in fact, were more concerned about the effect on the economy this year from worries about the fiscal standoff, with 60 percent saying “uncertainties in advance of the fiscal cliff outcome” already are depressing growth, said Morgan Stanley economist Vincent Reinhart. He expects Congress in the end to come up with a budget deal that only mildly depresses growth next year.

“We assume that a deal is struck before year-end that extends most features of the current fiscal system on the promise of some new mechanism to force a decision later next year,” he said. “The exact features of the deal depend on who will be in the White House after Jan. 20, 2013, but the net effect is some modest fiscal restraint in 2013.”

Hurting in the run-up

But the damage to the economy in anticipation of the much-ballyhooed deadline can still be substantial, according to Mr. Silvia of Wells Fargo.

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