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“The architecture it required was fortress-like,” according to former State Department counter-terrorism adviser Michael B. Kraft.

He said the standards imposed a “security premium” on embassy construction and refurbishment that added about 10-15 percent to the cost.

Dozens of diplomatic facilities have had security upgraded, often moving to the suburbs to acquire the large plots of land necessary to provide embassy compounds with setback, according to Mr. Dobbins.

He is skeptical that budget cuts might have affected the outcome of the deadly events in Benghazi, noting that up to 100 extremists with rocket-propelled grenade launchers, heavy machine guns and mortars had stormed the compound.

“There are some levels of attack for which no reasonable precautions can prepare,” he said, adding that “any reasonable security presence” would likely have been overwhelmed by the gunmen.

Former Ambassador Charles Ray, who left the foreign service recently, said that he had “on multiple occasions dealt with [situations] … where security upgrades were warranted by conditions on the ground but unfunded.” He did not comment directly on the Benghazi attack.

The separate investigations by Congress and the State Department inspector-general will proceed along with a legally required probe by a specially convened Accountability Review Board. Last week, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton appointed career diplomat Thomas Pickering to lead the review board investigation.

On Wednesday, Mr. Rogers said he is not concerned by the possibility of three different probes.

“Another set of eyes is a good thing,” he said, “It’s something we’re going to have to get to the bottom of. I think we’ll have to do our own investigation, we being Congress.”

“Seeing this confusion or lack of concern or at least lack of candor in the details [about the attack] that we had is very, very concerning,” he added.

Initially, when approached by lawmakers last week, State Department Inspector General Harold W. Geisel appeared to balk at the idea of a separate inquiry by his office.

“In view of … our desire not to interfere with investigations by other law enforcement entities or the Department of State, we will offer our support and assistance as needed,” he wrote to Sen. Joseph Lieberman, Connecticut Independent, and Sen. Susan Collins, Maine Republican.

Over the weekend, the senators expressed their dissatisfaction with his position.

“We think there ought to be two investigations,” Mr. Lieberman told C-SPAN.

He noted that the inspector-general at Department of Homeland Security investigated allegations of sexual misbehavior by Secret Service agents in Columbia, even as the secret service was carrying out its own probe.

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