Continued from page 1

In 2009, the Russian-backed Chechen regime of President Ramzan Kadyrov and then-Russian President Dmitry Medvedev declare that the insurgency had been crushed and that Russian counterinsurgency operations in the republic would end.

Human rights groups said Mr. Kadyrov used a ruthless campaign of extra-judicial torture, killings and imprisonment to defeat the insurgency, which even today continues sporadically.

In March 2010, Chechen extremists claimed responsibility for bombings on the Moscow subway that killed more than 40 people.