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The committee failed, triggering the automatic across-the-board cuts to defense and domestic spending programs that have fueled partisan finger-pointing.

Congressional Republicans blame Mr. Obama and say it’s up to Democrats to come up with a plan to replace the sequesters.

Mr. Obama countered Tuesday, calling on Republicans to delay the cuts, which he described as “brutal.”

“These cuts are not smart,” Mr. Obama said, flanked by firefighters and emergency responder personnel. “They are not fair. They will hurt our economy. They will add hundreds of thousands of Americans to the unemployment rolls.”

Speaking at the breakfast Tuesday, Mr. Bowles and Mr. Simpson said sequesters threaten the fragile economic recovery.

“They are stupid, stupid, stupid,” Mr. Bowles said, arguing that the cuts are shortsighted and should be phased in gradually over the next decade.

The latest Simpson-Bowles proposal drew mixed reviews.

Richard Trumka, president of the AFL-CIO, said that “once again, Bowles and Simpson have produced a plan that tells working people to ‘drop dead.’”

Robert L. Bixby, executive director of the Concord Coalition, a bipartisan budget watchdog group, said the proposal will help focus debate on the nation’s long-term fiscal problems when lawmakers return to Washington to tackle the continuing resolution set to expire March 27.

“It is another opportunity to do something and they are trying to inject a framework to include in the conversation,” Mr. Bixby said. “What is needed now is nudging the normal budget process in the direction of a comprehensive deficit-reduction plan.”

Douglas Holtz-Eakin, former director of the Congressional Budget Office and now president of the right-leaning American Action Forum, said the Simpson-Bowles plan is “underwhelming” and relies too heavily on tax increases.

“I think it is the wrong framework,” he said. “We are tying to build a model for going forward and this just doesn’t seem like the right one for me.”