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Experts say for most people in Kashmir, neither women performers nor music are a problem. “It becomes an issue when these strings are used to subvert a dominant political reality,” said Wasim Bhat, a Kashmiri sociologist.

Kashmir has a long tradition of poetry and music, and has produced iconic female singers including Raj Begum, Kailash Mehra, Naseem Begum and Shamima Azad, the wife of India’s health minister, Ghulam Nabi Azad.

That cultural heritage suffered when Muslim militants began their armed campaign two decades ago to gain independence for Indian-controlled Kashmir or its merger with Pakistan.

The rebels ordered the closure of cinemas and liquor shops, calling them “un-Islamic” and vehicles of India’s cultural aggression. India’s military responded to the insurrection with crackdowns that included torture, kidnapping, extortion and murder.

As armed violence waned in recent years, music shows and theater performances re-emerged, but some of the boundaries set during the conflict remained.