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And the guys wandering the factory floor with clipboards? They’re gone.

THE CLOUD

In the old days _ say, five years ago _ businesses that had to track lots of information needed to install servers in their offices and hire technical staff to run them. “Cloud computing” has changed everything.

Now, companies can store information on the Internet _ perhaps through Amazon Web Services or Google App Engine _ and grab it when they need it. And they don’t need to hire experts to do it.

Cloud computing “is a catch-all term for the ability to rent as much computer power as you need without having to buy it, without having to know a lot about it,” McAfee says. “It really has opened up very high-powered computing to the masses.”

Small businesses, which have no budget for a big technology department, are especially eager to take advantage of the cheap computer power offered in the cloud.

Hilliard’s Beer in Seattle, founded in October 2011, bought software from the German company SAP that allows it to use cloud computing to track sales and inventory and to produce the reports that federal regulators require.

“It automates a lot of the stuff that we do,” owner Ryan Hilliard says. “I know what it takes to run a server. I didn’t want to hire an IT guy.”

And the brewery keeps finding new ways to use the beefed-up computing power. For example, it’s now tracking what happens to the kegs it delivers to restaurants and retrieving them sooner for reuse. “Kegs are a pretty big expense for a small brewery,” Hilliard says.

Automated Insights in Durham, N.C., draws on the computing power of the cloud to produce automated sports stories, such as customized weekly summaries for fantasy football leagues. “We’re able to create over 1,000 pieces of content per second at a very cost-effective rate,” says founder Robbie Allen. He says his startup would not have been possible without cloud computing.

SMARTER MACHINES

Though many are still working out the kinks, software is making machines and devices smarter every year. They can learn your habits, recognize your voice, do the things that travel agents, secretaries and interpreters have traditionally done.

Microsoft has unveiled a system that can translate what you say into Mandarin and play it back _ in your voice. The Google Now personal assistant can tell you if there’s a traffic jam on your regular route home and suggest an alternative. Talk to Apple’s Siri and she can reschedule an appointment. IBM’s Watson supercomputer can field an awkwardly worded question, figure out what you’re trying to ask, retrieve the answer and spit it out fast enough to beat human champions on the TV quiz show “Jeopardy!” Computers with that much brainpower increasingly will invade traditional office work.

Besides becoming more powerful and creative, machines and their software are becoming easier to use. That has made consumers increasingly comfortable relying on them to transact business. As well as eliminated jobs of bank tellers, ticket agents and checkout cashiers.

People who used to say “Let me talk to a person. I don’t want to deal with this machine” are now using check-in kiosks at airports and self-checkout lanes at supermarkets and drugstores, says Jeff Connally, CEO of CMIT Solutions, a technology consultancy.

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