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Mr. Obama, who “evolved” on the issue, also publicly endorsed gay marriage in 2012.

Vice President Joseph R. Biden and former Vice President Al Gore support it, as well as hundreds of current or former national and state Democratic leaders.

Among Republicans, former Vice President Dick Cheney, former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell and former first lady Laura Bush are among the notables who have indicated their support for gay marriage. More than 100 Republicans have urged the Supreme Court to overturn laws blocking gay marriage.