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The report said renewable electricity and nuclear power would have to increase and oil consumption would be reduced to meet the bill’s goals, but it did not say less foreign oil would be used.

Republican energy lobbyist Michael McKenna said it’s as likely the bill would increase dependence on unreliable sources.

The report is “completely silent on the bill’s effect on how much we import, and it’s silent for good reason,” Mr. McKenna said. “The legislation will either A, have no effect, or B, increase our dependence on places like Saudi Arabia whose crude has relatively lower carbon content than places like Canada, whose crude has a relatively higher carbon content.”

The study also did not say how effective the bill would be in reducing global temperatures — another primary goal of Democrats.

EIA analysts said there is a lot of uncertainty about how the program would play out, and looked at six scenarios for how quickly technological advances might bring reductions in greenhouse gas levels, and how easily U.S. companies would be able to pay those overseas to offset U.S. emissions.

According to the worst-case scenario, if technology doesn’t materialize and other countries refuse to cooperate on offsets, consumer prices could be 14 percent higher in 2030 than they would otherwise be without the climate change bill.