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1991: Apple and IBM Corp. announce an alliance to develop new PC microprocessors and software. Apple unveils PowerBook portable Macintoshes.

1993: Apple introduces the Newton, a hand-held, pen-based computer. The company reports quarterly loss of $188 million in July, and CEO Sculley is replaced by Apple president Michael Spindler. Apple restructures and Sculley resigns as chairman. At Next, Jobs decides to focus on software instead of whole computers.

1994: Apple introduces Power Macintosh computers based on the PowerPC chip it developed with IBM and Motorola. Apple decides to license its operating software, allowing other companies to clone the Mac.

1995: The first Mac clones go on sale. Microsoft Corp. releases Windows 95, which is easier to use and more like the Macintosh. Apple struggles with competition, parts shortages and mistakes predicting customer demand. Pixar’s “Toy Story,” the first commercial computer-animated feature, hits theaters and Pixar goes to Wall Street with an IPO that raises $140 million.

1996: Apple announces plans to buy Next for $430 million, for the operating system Jobs‘ team developed. Deal closes in 1997. Gil Amelio replaces Spindler as CEO.

1997: Steve Jobs returns to Apple as an adviser, then appointed “interim” CEO after Amelio is pushed out. Jobs puts an end to Mac clones.

1998: Apple returns to profitability and unveils the iMac, a blue-and-white computer and monitor in one that set Apple on the path to its comeback. Apple also discontinues the Newton.

2000: Apple removes “interim” label from Jobs‘ CEO title.

2001: The first iPod goes on sale, as do computers with OS X, the modern Mac operating system based on Next software.

2003: Apple launches the iTunes music store with 200,000 songs at 99 cents each, giving people a convenient way to buy music legally online. It sells 1 million songs in the first week.

2004: Jobs undergoes surgery for a rare but curable form of pancreatic cancer. Apple discloses his illness after the fact.

2005: Apple expands the iPod line with the tiny Nano and an iPod that can play video. The company also announces that future Macs will use Intel chips.

2006: Disney buys Pixar for $7.4 billion. Jobs becomes Disney’s largest individual shareholder, and much of his wealth is derived from this sale.

2007: Apple releases its first smartphone, the iPhone. Crowds camp overnight at stores to be one of the first to own the new device.

2008: Speculation mounts that Jobs is ill, given his weight loss. In September he kicks off an Apple event and says, “The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated,” making a play off a famous Mark Twain quote after Bloomberg News accidentally publishes, then retracts, an obituary that it had prepared in advance.

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