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After the budget failed once more Tuesday, it appeared that neither side was going to give an inch — continuing uncertainty for localities planning their own budgets and portending the possibility of a partial government shutdown if a deal couldn’t be reached before the end of the fiscal year on June 30.

Mr. McDonnell on Tuesday called the Democrats’ vote “the most fiscally reckless vote I have witnessed in my 21 years in office,” and Republicans assailed their counterparts across the aisle for holding up a budget over a single project.

Democrats were equally resolute, arguing that Dulles rail was crucial to the economic health not just of Northern Virginia, but the entire state.

“I thought we left the governor plenty of room to move,” Mr. Saslaw said. “When he said, ‘I can’t find the money,’ I said, ‘Well, staff members of the Senate Finance Committee could.’ He blew me off, essentially, saying he was not interested.”

Republicans had appeared confident that they secured a vote Tuesday from Mr. Colgan, one of a handful of negotiators who helped craft the final conference report.

Mr. McDonnell met privately with Mr. Colgan, Mr. Saslaw, and Senate Caucus Chairman A. Donald McEachin, Henrico Democrat, on Tuesday and presented Mr. Colgan a letter affirming the governor’s support for the project. It also contained Mr. McDonnell’s insistence that he would not increase funding for the project beyond what the state previously committed.

That was enough for Mr. Colgan, but the tone enraged party leadership, which swayed the 85-year-old senator’s vote from an intended “yea” to “nay” — at least for that day.

Mr. McDonnell wrote in the Tuesday letter that the state’s ability to provide more money right now “is simply not possible.”

“It would not be responsible to borrow new money to buy down tolls, and I cannot support taking major money from projects from other regions of the state that have already been approved by the Commonwealth Transportation Board,” he wrote.

The bill had easily passed the Republican-controlled House of Delegates.

Among other items, the conference report contained the net increase of $652.9 million for public education, including $110 million for a flexible block grant that localities can use to address teacher retirement, inflation and pre-K program costs. It restores $40 million out of $65 million Mr. McDonnell had proposed cutting to offset the higher cost of living of Northern Virginia teaching personnel.

The budget contained $44.7 million over Mr. McDonnell’s introduced budget for health and human resources, including an additional 305 waiver slots for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities to move them from institutions to community-based settings.

It also authorized a 3 percent bonus for state employees and faculty this December contingent on unspent balances and excess revenues in the current year. The bonus is estimated to cost about $77 million of general funds.