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“We continue to believe that there is no alternative to that document in trying to find a settlement in Syria,” Mr. Lukashevich said. He also reaffirmed Moscow’s objection to calls for Mr. Assad’s ouster.

Russia has been Mr. Assad’s strongest backer throughout the conflict, selling arms to his forces and, along with China, protecting him from censure by the U.N. Security Council for his violent crackdown on the opposition.

Top Russian officials recently have signaled a new resignation to the idea that Mr. Assad could fall. Still, they have said they will not call for his ouster or offer him refuge should he decide to flee.