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The “most menacing” spy threats in the next three years will come from cyberespionage against the government, businesses and universities, Mr. Clapper said, noting that many intrusions go undetected.

“Although most activity detected to date has been targeted against unclassified networks connected to the Internet, foreign cyberactors have also begun targeting classified networks,” he said.

A new area of concern is corporate supply chains and financial networks. Mr. Clapper said these targets “will increasingly rely on global links that can be exploited by foreign collectors, and the growing use of cloud data processing and storage may present new challenges to the security and integrity of sensitive information.”


China’s strategic nuclear missile forces are expected to double in size by 2025, according to the Defense Intelligence Agency director.

Army Lt. Gen. Ronald L. Burgess Jr., said in recent Senate testimony the current long-range missile arsenal that could deliver a nuclear warhead to the United States is “fewer than 50 ICBMs.”

Gen. Burgess said the strategic missile force “will probably double that number by 2025.”

Estimating China’s strategic nuclear warhead stockpile has been difficult, but most analysts place the number of nuclear warheads in the Chinese arsenal from 300 to 400.

A recent Georgetown University project that examined China’s underground nuclear forces, including some 3,000 miles of tunnels, estimated that based on the size of the facilities, China could have as many as 3,000 warheads. The study based its estimate on fissile material production within what the project called “The Great Underground Wall.”

Gen. Burgess also said China is modernizing its nuclear missiles forces by adding harder-to-hit road-mobile missiles and enhancing silo-based missiles. It is also building up nuclear-missile submarines.

The disclosure of China’s nuclear modernization comes as the Obama administration has directed the Pentagon to consider cutting U.S. strategic nuclear warheads to as low as 300.