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Prevention efforts should be tailored for a nation’s populations, she said, citing the risks posed by commercial sex workers; men who have sex with men; and young, sexually active heterosexual adults as examples.

Proven prevention methods, she added, include giving antiretroviral drugs to certain high-risk people to prevent their acquisition of HIV; ensuring that HIV-positive individuals are on antiretroviral drugs to reduce the likelihood they will transmit the virus; and voluntary male circumcision.