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An eavesdropping phoenix, NSA arose from ashes of 9/11
The start of the National Security Agency’s rise in power can be traced to the first years after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, when new laws, secret presidential orders and lots of cash emboldened it to sweep up billions of communications.
The NSA that stands today at Fort George G. Meade in Maryland — and has been exposed by leaker Edward Snowden — bears faint resemblance to the underfunded, technologically challenged outfit in 2001 that had trouble penetrating basic cellphones, former officials say.
“There have been major investments made to it,” Mr. Hoekstra says. “They’ve been very, very creative in terms of gathering data. They’ve been very, very creative in fusing different data sets and coming up with answers, which is their job.
“Rather than just collecting data, they’re collecting it from a lot of different sources. They’re fusing the data and giving them a much better picture of what the battlefield looks like,” he says.
The NSA’s sorry state on the day al Qaeda struck America broke into the open five years later, when then-Director Gen. Michael V. Hayden did the unthinkable for the “No Such Agency,” as critics had dubbed it: He answered questions at the National Press Club.
“By the late 1990s … the explosion of modern communications in terms of volume, variety, velocity threatened to overwhelm us,” the Air Force general said. “The agency took a lot of criticism in those days, I know, criticism that it was ‘going deaf,’ that it was ossified in its thinking, that it had not and could not keep up with the changes in modern communications.”
Former CIA Director George Tenet, who left office in 2004 bitter over a lack of funding in the 1990s for tracking terrorists, wrote in his memoirs: “You don’t simply tell NSA to give you more signals intelligence when their capabilities are crumbling and they are ‘going deaf’ — unable to monitor critical voice communications.”
The world now knows the scope of NSA’s renaissance. It is collecting and storing every phone call made in and out of the United States. In an instant, it can intercept a foreign terrorist’s email or phone call routed through this country. It has computer programs to penetrate all social media. It can bug embassies in Washington, their fax machines and personal computers.
This chutzpah began in the first few years after 9/11. The George W. Bush administration interpreted the Patriot Act as granting broad eavesdropping powers to capture and store a record of every phone call — a practice continued by President Obama.
Funding spiked as the NSA asked the high-tech industry to start devising new ways to track terrorists and listen in.
Annual spending on national intelligence hovered around $25 billion in the late 1990s. It more than doubled after 9/11.
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