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Calls and e-mails were overwhelmingly opposed to the bailout, with taxpayers angered at being left on the hook for Wall Street executives’ mismanagement.

Democrats said they never thought about delaying the vote on the bill, both because the administration said it was urgent and because they counted on Republicans to deliver.

“A week ago Thursday night, Secretary Paulson, [Federal Reserve Chairman Ben S.] Bernanke sat with us and said speed was of the essence to respond to this crisis so we could stabilize the market. [Republican leader John A.] Boehner was in the room. He said absolutely he agreed with that. And so we have moved this ahead,” said House Majority Leader Steny H. Hoyer, Maryland Democrat.

Still, Democrats were indignant that Republicans fell short, and said that laying blame on Mrs. Pelosi’s speech was petty.

“Somebody hurt my feelings, so I will punish the country. I mean, that’s hardly plausible,” said Rep. Barney Frank of Massachusetts, the Democratic point man on the bill. “Give me those 12 people’s names. And I will go talk uncharacteristically, nicely to them and tell them what wonderful people they are. And maybe they’ll now think about the country.”

Democrats said it is up to Mr. Bush now to deliver the votes for a new proposal.

Mr. Bush said he was “disappointed” in the bill’s failure. Mr. Paulson said the U.S. banking system was still holding up well despite the financial mess and the bill’s failure, but that he would continue to press for a bill anyway.

“We have significant tools in our tool kit but they’re not sufficient. And so we’re going to continue to work with what we have until we get from Congress what we need,” he said.

The vote is a particular blow to Republican House leaders, all of whom voted for the bill but were unable to deliver their colleagues.

Several Republican aides said with more time, they might have been able to wrangle more votes for Monday’s bill, raising hopes they can bridge the gap by the time the House returns later this week.