- - Friday, February 5, 2016

Commercial aviation rights according to the Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944 (known as the Chicago Convention).

First Freedom: The right to fly over a foreign country without landing.

Second Freedom: Technical or refueling stop. Passengers usually stay on the plane.

Third Freedom and Fourth Freedom: Basic international service between two countries. Third is A to B, Fourth is B to A. May also include “Beyond Rights” where a foreign carrier may be allowed multiple stops in that second country.

Fifth Freedom: An airline is allowed to carry revenue traffic between foreign countries, mostly a midpoint country, as a part of services connecting the airline’s own country. Fifth freedom flights allow airlines to sell seats on any sector and were intended as a way of enhancing the viability of expensive long-haul routes for the airlines and bulking up sales in underserved and underused routes. These rights were essential until advances in avian technology allowed for more fuel- and cost-efficient non-stop long haul routes.

Sixth Freedom: This freedom combines the Third and Fourth, allowing a carrier to sell tickets from Point C to Point A and in the reverse while stopping in Point B, the home country, and allowing passengers to use it as a stopover destination.

Seventh Freedom: This allows a carrier not originating from its home country to pick up passengers in a second country and take them to a third country without involving any service to or from the airline’s home country. It becomes “cabotage” when a foreign carrier transports goods or passengers between two points in a foreign country.

Eighth Freedom: This right is usually reserved for “island hoppers.” It allows a carrier from one country to carry passengers and goods between two or more points in a closely linked foreign territory. It can pick up goods and passengers from those areas and carry them back to the carrier’s home country in a routing also known as “consecutive cabotage.”

Ninth Freedom: This gives an airline the right to carry passengers around points within a foreign country without involving any service to or from the home country.

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