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“We recommend that Congress get the government to produce a full report every year” about these kinds of incidents, commission member Larry Worzel, a retired colonel in Army intelligence and China specialist, told The Times.

A more comprehensive accounting is needed of how often they occur and how severe they are, he said.

“We see this stuff coming in piecemeal [but the government] has to put into place better analytic tools to spot these kinds of diversions and track which servers and routes are being used,” Mr. Worzel said.

He said China Telecom is not an independent commercial entity, calling it “a surrogate, owned and controlled by the Chinese government.”

The report notes that “China’s leadership, at all levels of the government, increasingly uses the Internet to interact with the Chinese people.” Combined with “strict censorship controls,” this means Beijing could “allow a controlled online debate about certain issues” and then “leverage what it learns from following this debate to construct policies that aim to undercut the most serious irritants to domestic stability.”

The report calls this “networked authoritarianism,” noting several efforts by the authorities to collect opinions from Chinese Internet users, for example, before major national meetings by the government or ruling Communist Party.

In another such effort, in September the Chinese Communist Party’s official newspaper, the People’s Daily, launched a website called “Direct Line to Zhongnanhai,” a reference to the compound that houses China’s president and other senior party figures.

But submission guidelines ban any comment “which harms the state’s honor or interests” or “undermines state policy on religion or advocates heretical organizations or feudal superstitions.”

“These guidelines serve as a window into the government’s efforts to control the boundaries and nature of discussions online,” the report notes.

In a white paper issued Monday, Google Inc., which recently curtailed its activities in China in response to Beijing’s efforts to control the Web, called Internet censorship, non-transparent regulation and online surveillance “the trade barriers of the 21st century economy.”

“In addition to infringing on human rights, governments that block the free flow of information on the Internet are also blocking trade and economic growth,” the Internet-service company said in a statement.