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In a statement Monday, Rep. Edward J. Markey, Massachusetts Democrat and a member of House energy panel, stood by those claims.

“What is fully evident, from BP’s pipeline spill in Alaska and the Texas city refinery disaster, to the Deepwater Horizon well failure, is that BP has a long and sordid history of cutting costs and pushing the limits in search of higher profits,” Mr. Markey said.

After months of hearings, investigations and finger-pointing, there is still disagreement over what and whose mistakes triggered the deadly and polluting explosion. The president’s commission is the first independent body to weigh in.

Like BP, it found that the oil and gas traveled up the center of the pipe in the well rather than up the sides. Panel members also questioned, like BP, the interpretation of a critical test used to determine if the well was stable before the company abandoned it. The investigators said some procedures BP decided to use in that process, in which a well is plugged until a company is ready to harvest oil and gas, introduced additional risk.

But its probe also left out critical elements, including why the blowout preventer - the last defense against a runaway well - failed to block the flow of oil and gas. Mr. Bartlit said the team would await a forensic analysis before drawing conclusions. The blowout preventer is now protected evidence in a federal court case into the disaster.