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University of Miami researcher Kevin Jacobs has studied Viagra in simulated high-altitude environments and “didn’t find much benefit in young, healthy, active individuals.”

“No one has really tested it in football players doing exercise. Whatever benefit they think they’re getting is probably more psychological than anything,” said Jacobs, an associate professor in the kinesiology and sport sciences department.

Marshall said he doesn’t take medication “of any sort” and noted that the NFL’s drug policy is strict.

“Any time you take anything over the counter, if you don’t approve it with your training room, you can get popped,” he said. “Some of it’s fair, but some of it kind of puts you in a tough spot as a professional athlete. Because the only thing you’ll see is getting busted for PEDs, but it could be something over the counter for a little sickness. You just have to be on top of your Ps and Qs.”

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AP Medical Writer Lindsey Tanner in Chicago and Sports Writer Jon Krawczynski in Minneapolis contributed to this report.

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