Mr. Creal said the solution may be as simple as bankrupting the enemy.
"Mali did everything according to the book — built a democratic nation, used [a U.S.] grant to fuel its economic growth and then, boom, al Qaeda moves in and all hell breaks loose," Mr. Creal said. "We missed one very important piece of the puzzle. We need to bankrupt the enemy. While we help build a nation, they build their war chest."